PLCopen announces SFC software construction guidelines | Automation.com

PLCopen announces SFC software construction guidelines

PLCopen announces SFC software construction guidelines

July 6, 2018 - Although there are guidelines for many programming languages, these are nearly non-existent for the important area of industrial control, e.g. IEC 61131-3 and its PLCopen extensions. Nevertheless, the software in the industrial environment is becoming more and more important, the software projects are larger, and the costs of errors increase. Software nowadays absorbs half of the initial project costs and between 40 and 80% deals with maintenance over the life cycle costs of the software. In order to deal with the complexity of larger programs one needs modern software development processes supporting a structured approach and creating re-usable code. Also, we need to increase the efficiency in coding via re-use of pre-defined functionalities and to help to better understand the program over the life cycle.

Therefore PLCopen started their initiative for Software Construction Guidelines in 2015. So far this resulted in the publication of two documents:

  • PLCopen Coding Guidelines, released in 2016, and
  • Creating PLCopen compliant Libraries, released in 2017.

A third document Structuring with SFC: do’s and don’ts is now released as version 1.0.

This document explains the advantages of Sequential Function Chart, SFC. This is a very expressive graphic formalism of the IEC 61131-3 standard. It is not considered a programming language as it needs other languages to express transition conditions and actions.

SFC provides a means for partitioning a programmable controller program organization unit into a set of steps and transitions interconnected by directed links. Associated with each step is a set of actions, and with each transition is associated a transition condition. Since SFC elements require storage of state information, the only POUs which can be structured using these elements are function blocks and programs (not functions).

If any part of a program organization unit is partitioned into SFC elements, the entire program organization unit shall be so partitioned. If no SFC partitioning is given for a program organization unit, the entire program organization unit shall be considered to be a single action which executes under the control of the calling entity.

Whenever a sequential process shall be controlled, SFC shall be considered as most suitable for structuring the internal organization of a POU especially in the Functional Description:

  • When the process consists of several steps to be executed sequentially in a time flow, for example an assembly process, SFC can be used to map the different phases of assembly as steps and structure the process as sequence of steps.
  • When the process can be modelled as a state machine, these states can be mapped to steps and changing from one state to another can be structured by transitions.
  • SFC structures the internal organization of a program, and helps to decompose a control problem into manageable parts, while maintaining the overview.
     

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