Sensors & Sensing Technologies White Papers and Technical Articles

Articles and white papers on sensors & sensing technologies used in the automation, process control, and instrumentation industry.

Many of the following links are PDF documents and require Adobe Acrobat Reader to view. Download Acrobat Reader Here.

Position Sensors: A look into the Photoelectric, Proximity and Limit Switch Markets

Earlier this year, VDC Research Group’s Industrial Automation and Control Practice teamed up with Automation.com and other Industrial Automation and sensor industry partners to conduct a survey on the position sensing market. This survey was in support of a comprehensive 3 volume report on position sensing technologies. This article will provide readers with a few selected insights into the Photoelectric, Proximity and Limit Switch markets. Read full article.

Color Contrast And Luminescence Sensors

By Bill Letterle, EMX Industries
Photoelectric sensors are powerful tools that, when properly applied, can produce highly reliable solutions to some tough automation challenges. While each application is different from one another, applying the guidelines discussed in this paper will help to make the sensor selection process a bit easier. Read entire article.

Considerations for Specifying, Installing and Interfacing Rotary Incremental Optical Encoders

By Scott Hewitt, SICK STEGMANN
The vast majority of encoder users have a solid understanding of the type of encoder they need to accomplish their objective. What they don’t always know, at least without painful experience, are the major factors that need to be considered when specifying, installing, and interfacing with the encoders they select for their machine. Click here to read full article...

Networking I/O Increases Reliability of Metal Forming Applications

By Helge Hornis, PhD, Intelligent Systems Manager
Pepperl+Fuchs
Metal forming applications are among the toughest and most demanding on sensors and sensor wiring. High shock and vibration not only destroy sensors but also severely limit the reliability and expected service life of the cabling needed to bring them back to the PLC. Read full article...

Background Suppression with Photoelectric Sensors

By Gary Frigyes, Product Manager, Ed Myers, Product Manager, Jeff Allison, Product Manager
Pepperl+Fuchs
When using photoelectric sensors in simple diffused mode (a.k.a. proximity mode), the sensor uses the target to reflect light back to itself, eliminating the need for a secondary device such as a reflector. Read full article...

Material Handling: Sensing Challenges & Solutions

By Thomas Corbett, Product Manager, Gary Frigyes, Product Marketing Manager
Pepperl+Fuchs
In today’s material handling market, OEMs are faced with a number of concerns when choosing a sensor manufacturer and specifying sensors. Read full article...

Color-Blind No More

By Jeff Allison, Product Manager
Pepperl+Fuchs
Contrast and Color Sensors Open Eyes to Packaging/Converting Applications. Bridging the gap between photoelectric sensors and vision systems, they are equipped to detect even the slightest variations of the same color. Read full article...

Fundamentals of Photoelectric Sensors

By Gary Frigyes, Product Marketing Manager, Ed Myers, Product Manager, Jeff Allison, Product Manager
Pepperl+Fuchs
This article is focused on photoelectric sensors and defines what they are, their advantages and some basic modes of operation. Read full article...

Cross-talk Compensation for Force Sensors Using Matrix Methods

By David Schrand, Sensor Developments Inc. Cross-talk compensation involves mathematically manipulating the load-cells output data to correct the cross-talk outputs. It is effective for any number of extraneous loads, and can be characterized as mathematical cross-talk compensation by the application of “cross coupling coefficients”, or the inverse matrix method.Read this PDF article

Vehicle Operator Safety: The Advantages of Using Electronic Sensors in Off-road Vehicles

Off-road vehicles are designed to perform arduous tasks in extreme outdoor conditions. In industries such as construction, agriculture and forestry, vehicles must navigate on uneven surfaces while lifting and moving heavy loads. For vehicle operators, the chances of tipping or rolling over are high, and safety is a concern. By installing preventative measures such as electronic sensors to detect the vehicle's operating condition and alignment, operator safety is increased. This white paper will describe the advantages of using three distinct sensor types in off-road vehicles to improve operator safety. Read full article...

The Status of IEEE 1451.4 Plug and Play

A year ago, the preliminary standard IEEE P1451.4 was heralded as the new era in sensors with TEDS becoming an industry protocol, promising to enable the implementation of plug and play in your signal conditioning environment and thereby simplify the tasks of configuring and using automatic measurement systems. Huge strides have been made over the course of the past year; and it is time to revisit IEEE P1451.4 to determine the progress that has been made, as well as project the publishing of the final version. Read full paper...

Evolving applications mandate new proximity sensor designs

As automation equipment continues to decrease in size and increase in complexity, sensor manufacturers are striving to provide smaller sensors with greater capabilities that meet new user requirements. More Info...

New laser sensing technologies economically solve previously impossible applications

The recent evolution and application of Class 2 lasers for industrial sensing, measurement and inspection is now having significant impact in factories. More Info...

The Role of Sensors in Error Proofing.

The significant benefits of error proofing both automated and manual assembly procedures are becoming increasingly evident in all industries. The objectives are both increased quality and increased productivity. More Info...

Introduction to Strain & Strain Measurement

This article introduces the concept of strain and strain measurement. Strain gauges are widely employed in sensors that detect and measure force and force-related parameters, such as torque, acceleration, pressure, and vibration. More Info...

Inductive Proximity Sensors: Design, Selection, Specification and Implementation (pdf)